Rapid climate change has occurred in the Arctic, which is representatively indicated by a decade-long accelerated decline of sea ice extent and volume and an amplified warming trend at a rate of almost twice the global average. Along with these changes, extreme climate events of sea ice cover loss also occurred in summer 2007, 2012, and 2016. At the same time, dramatic changes have also occurred in broader areas of the Northern Hemisphere. Many aspects of these changes are obviously beyond the scope of conventional climate fluctuations, and also could not be solely accounted for by greenhouse-gas-emissions forcing. In this presentation, we will introduce our research progresses integrated from data analysis and model simulations towards improving systematic understanding of the rapid changes in the Arctic and the enhanced linkage between Arctic and mid-latitude climate and weather. The recent strong debates on Arctic’s impact on mid-latitude climate and weather will be highlighted.